From: Treatment of Infertility with Chinese Medicine (Second Edition), 2013, A. Shafiee, ... H. Nadri, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition), 2014. They can dissolve many oils, resins, and waxes. Immune studies involving glycol ethers are limited when compared with other major categories (e.g., heavy metals and dioxins) of EDCs. Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether for synthesis. The glycol ethers are colorless liquids with a slight odor. This elasticity provides clinical advantages because it allows substantial swelling without cutting into tissue and maintains tissue approximation throughout healing. Studies of propyl and longer-chain (e.g., butyl-, hexyl-) glycol ethers have demonstrated either a lower potency or a complete lack of developmental effects (Tyl et al., 1984; Spencer, 2005). Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: Tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether, 143-24-8. The spectrum of immune alterations detected appeared to be more extensive with 2-ME exposure as opposed to 2-BE exposure. Polyethylene glycol octadecyl ether crystallizes perfectly. It is miscible in water and also in alcohols, esters, ethers, and ketones. On the one hand, it is reassuring that genes presumably underlying (or at least consistent with) the in vivo lesion are altered in vitro. The term is often applied to the simplest member of the class, ethylene glycol. Subsequent work on this and another short-chain fatty acid (valproic acid) found early and specific dysregulation of multiple nuclear receptors through activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and inhibiting histone deacetylase, although neither were sufficient to account for all the receptor-potentiating effects reported for MAA. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. This helped to identify early responses in Sertoli cells. [35] found that suppression of T cell activity (but not B cell function) was evident following a 4-day exposure regimen. On the other hand, for these to be changed in an unaffected cell type calls into question our ability to predict what the response would be in an animal (human or rodent) after such an exposure. Unlike ethylene glycol, however, propylene glycol is not toxic and is used extensively in foods, cosmetics, and oral hygiene products as a solvent, preservative, and moisture-retaining agent. Numerous follow-on studies have used this compound as a tool, based on that observation and on the assumption of the spermatocyte being the specific target. It is produced commercially from ethylene oxide, which is obtained from ethylene. A.J. Fatty acids can be esterified directly to polyethylene glycol ethers or by enzymatic preparation, which allows better control of the reaction. The Leydig cells never appeared abnormal, although prostate weights were occasionally reduced in some studies. Glycol ethers are metabolized to the corresponding aldehyde and alkoxyacetic acid by cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; EC 1.1.1.1) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH; 1.2.1.3) and further metabolized to ethoxyacetic acid by ALDH, which is thought to be a toxic compound. : 34590-94-8 Formula : C7H16O3 Synonyms : Dipropylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether, DPM, Dipropylene Glycol Methyl Ether, DPGME BIG no : 13519 1.2. Ethylene glycol and some of its derivatives are mildly toxic. Animal studies have reported testicular damage, reduced fertility, early embryonic death, birth defects, and delayed development from inhalation and oral exposure to the glycol ethers.156 Occupational exposure to glycol ethers has also been shown to result in reproductive and developmental impacts in humans. Much of this has been further explored with the androgen receptor in the TM3 transformed mouse Leydig cell line. Glycol Ether PM is a good substitute for E-series solvents; particularly, EM (ethylene glycol methyl ether) and EE (ethylene glycol ethyl ether). The fact that such gene sets were upregulated in a transformed line of a cell type which shows no pathology or visible change after EGME exposure in vivo is perplexing. (1) The chemical formula for 2-methoxyethanol is C 3 H 8 O 2, and the molecular weight is 76.1 g/mol. 34590-94-8 - WGYZMNBUZFHYRX-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information. If they catch on fire, toxic gases such as carbon oxides may be produced. It has a high degree of elastic stretch under low loads offering distinct advantages over other non-absorbable sutures (Rodheaver et al., 1986). Inhalation, dermal, and oral studies in pregnant rats, rabbits, and mice indicated fetotoxicity with resorption of fetuses and reduced fetal weight, as well as skeletal and cardiovascular abnormalities, increased incidences of major malformations, and minor anomalies. Several epidemiology studies have been conducted after occupational exposure that indicates impaired reproductive capability in men and women. Organic compound, any of a large class of chemical compounds in which one or more atoms...…, Alcohol, any of a class of organic compounds characterized by one or more hydroxyl (―OH)...…, Molecule, a group of two or more atoms that form the smallest identifiable unit into which...…. Ethoxyacetic acid can be further metabolized to carbon dioxide by O-deethylation or glycine conjugated analogs. The chemical structure of each compound is given in Appendix III. Glycol ether’s unique chemical structure of an alcohol and an ether give it hydrophobic and water soluble properties. How would we be able to predict that spermatocytes would be the responding cell based on these data from a Leydig cell line? Exposure to glycol ethers (in particular, 2-methoxyethanol and 2-ethoxyethanol) has been related to reduced semen quality in shipyard painters, metal casters, chemical industry workers and semiconductor industry workers (Figá-Talamanca et al., 2001). aromatic structure, DOWANOL™ PPh glycol ether is an excellent match for phenolic coatings and linings; it is also an excellent coalescent for acrylic-based latexes. Glycol ethers are colorless and flammable polar liquids that can be readily miscible with alcohol, liquid esters, ether, acetone, and water. In a multicenter case–control study, maternal glycol ether exposure was associated with congenital malformations (Cordier et al., 1997). Methoxyethanol is a glycol ether that has been known since the 1920s, but its use significantly increased in the 1970s. Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: Diethylene glycol n-butyl ether, 112-34-5. The thermal stable temperature … The Glycol Ethers, with Particular Reference to 2-Methoxyethanol and 2-Ethoxyethanol: ... (2EEE), and 1-methoxy-2-propanol or propylene glycol monomethyl ether (IMP). Glycol ethers and their acetates are used in a variety of industries and products. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information. Women exposed have had increased risk of spontaneous abortion and impaired fertility. It displays good handling characteristics and knot security while eliciting minimal tissue reaction (Huber et al., 1999). B Stanard, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition), 2014. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Propylene glycol, also called 1,2-propanediol, resembles ethylene glycol in its physical properties. More recent toxicogenomics work with MAA has found significant response of oxidative stress responsive genes, which leads into our next proposal for considering mechanisms. Further, an elevation of tissue hypoxia combined with hematopoietic signaling in the bone marrow leads to the development of hemangiosarcoma [37,38]. Because different applications require different polymer chain lengths, PEG has tended to refer to oligomers and polymers with a molecular mass below 20,000 g/mol, PEO to polymers with a molecular mass above 20,000 g/mol, and POE to a polymer of any molecular mass. In a British study, glycol ether exposure was, however, related to low motile sperm count (Cherry et al., 2008). Ethylene glycol (also called 1,2-ethanediol, molecular formula HOCH2CH2OH) is a colourless, oily liquid possessing a sweet taste and mild odour. Other commonly used glycol ethers include ethoxyethanol, butoxyethanol, and methoxypropanol. CAS 111-76-2, EC Number 203-905-0, chemical formula C₄H₉OCH₂CH₂OH. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Glycol, any of a class of organic compounds belonging to the alcohol family; in the molecule of a glycol, two hydroxyl (―OH) groups are attached to different carbon atoms. For example, diethylene glycol dimethylether exposure in pregnant mice produced reduction in fetal body weights and skeletal malformations at 125 mg kg−1 day−1, a dose that did not have systemic effects in the maternal animals (Price et al., 1987). Data for these propylene glycol ethers are supplemented with data from three propylene glycol ethers that are closely related to the category members in molecular structure, physicochemical properties and toxicity and thus extend the category. May initiate the polymerization of isocyanates and epoxides. Use of methoxyethanol has declined in recent years due to risk management procedures and replacement by other substances. It is able to stretch to 50% of its original length at a load of 25% of its known breaking point (Rodheaver et al., 1986; Moy et al., 1992). Although confusing, a possible way to view these data is that they may imply a future where pathway testing is done in any available cell type (or perhaps multiple cell types), and then a yet-to-be-discovered method is applied to identify which cell types will be the ones responding. Supplier Corrections? These compounds are: Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether … Glycol Ethers Glycol ethers are typically classified into two types; either E-series glycol ethers or P-series glycol ethers. PEG, PEO, and POE refer to an oligomer or polymer of ethylene oxide. May generate flammable and/or toxic gases with alkali metals, nitrides, and other strong reducing agents. It is encouraging to think that multiple cell types would give the same response, but daunting to consider how much more we have to learn in order to predict a real in vivo response. Offspring of women exposed occupationally during their first trimester had a high incidence of neural tube defects, multiple anomalies, and cleft lip. Substance name : Glycol Ether DPM CAS-No. In order to increase their volatility, the free hydroxyl group of the ether can be esterified, usually with acetic acid. Structure 2006 Volume 14 Number 9, 1377-1388. It is produced commercially from ethylene oxide, which is obtained from ethylene. The number of repeat units has significant effect on the melting, crystallizing temperature and enthalpy. The glycol ethers were also used as investigative toxicants in the emerging field of male reproductive toxicology in the early 1980s. Dart, C.M. Omissions? CAS 111-90-0, chemical formula HOCH₂CH₂OCH₂CH₂OC₂H₅. Glycol ethers are a large group of organic solvents used in industry and the home as glass cleaners, carpet cleaners, floor cleaners and oven cleaners. Dianne M. Creasy, Robert E. Chapin, in Haschek and Rousseaux's Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology (Third Edition), 2013. G.S. Oral and inhalation exposure studies in male rabbits, mice, and rats resulted in testicular atrophy and altered sperm count. Fatty acid polyglycol esters are good o/w emulsifiers. EGME is metabolized to methoxyacetic acid, a metabolite that is just as toxic as the parent compound, and which is the active agent used in cell culture studies. The other thing this calls into question is the current common practice of linking gene response data from affected cells to the lesions in those cells. Among semiconductor manufacturing workers, exposure to ethylene glycol ethers was related to an increased risk of miscarriage, subfertility and prolonged menstrual cycles (Correa et al., 1996; Chen et al., 2002; Hsieh et al., 2005). Ethylene glycol is widely used as antifreeze in automobile cooling systems and in the manufacture of human-made fibres, low-freezing explosives, and brake fluid. Cellosolve was a solvent product containing glycol ethers and registered in the 1920s by Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. Glycol ethers are derived from either ethylene oxide (E-series) or propylene oxide (p-series) combined with an alcohol. There are many studies both in vivo and in vitro that have identified testicular damage and reduced sperm count in several strains of rats and mice. This included explorations of the structure–activity relationships, and many studies using the two most potent congeners (ethylene glycol monomethyl ether [EGME] and ethylene glycol monoethyl ether [EGEE]) as tool compounds to visualize various patterns of response. Work in the 1980s and 1990s regarding various mechanisms had explored several separate avenues: (1) that MAA could form an MAA–CoA metabolite which could disturb carbohydrate metabolism; (2) that calcium channel blockers and kinase inhibitors could prevent many of the testicular (and other) toxicities observed after EGME treatment; (3) that Sertoli cells were required for the full expression of the cell death program in the spermatocytes; and (4) that kinase activity plays a central role in the spermatocyte death. A current model of 2-BE effects seen in mice suggests that 2-BE induces macrophage activation and inflammation in the liver involving Kupffer cells (liver macrophages). Other important glycols include 1,3-butanediol, used as a starting material for the manufacture of brake fluids and of plasticizers for resins; 1,4-butanediol, used in polyurethanes and in polyester resins for coatings and plasticizers, and for making butyrolactone, a valuable solvent and chemical intermediate; 2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol, an effective insect repellent; and 2-methyl-2-propyl-1,3-propanediol, made into meprobamate, a widely used tranquilizer. At room temperature and pressure, ethylene glycol is a syrupy liquid. (4) The chemical formula for 2-ethoxyethanol is C 4 H 10 O 2 We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. They are extensively used as solvents in industrial processes and manufacturing and as thinner and viscosity improving agents in coating processes. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. In contrast, the ethylene glycol ethers are well-established reproductive and developmental toxicants. Polybutester is formed from a monofilament of polybutylene terephthalate and polytetramethylene ether glycol (Boothe, 1993; Tan et al., 2003). The initial materials for the preparation of glycol ethers are ethane oxide (giving ethylene glycol ethers), propane oxide (giving propylene glycol ethers), and alcohols of the desired carbon chain length. Lewandowski, in Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences, 2014. Numerous pathogenesis studies identified the early and late pachytene spermatocytes (but not mid pachytene spermatocytes) and the dividing spermatocyte as the most sensitive germ cell for this family of toxicants, with cell death being stage-specific and occurring within 12 hours of a single dose. 112-07-2 - NQBXSWAWVZHKBZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether acetate - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information. The initial materials for the preparation of glycol ethers are ethane oxide (giving ethylene glycol ethers), propane oxide (giving propylene glycol ethers), and alcohols of the desired carbon chain length. Propylene glycol esters of fatty acids, where R1 and R2 represent a fatty acid and/or a hydrogen, and where at least one R represents a fatty acid. Similar findings were reported in a rodent teratology study involving diethylene glycol and triethylene glycol but studies of propylene glycol have not observed any developmental effects at doses ranging from 1000 to 10 000 mg kg−1 day−1 (Driscoll et al., 1993; Enright et al., 2010). Has 100% water solubility and is ideally suited as a coupling agent in a wide range of solvent systems. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Among the first studies is that of Exon et al. They can dissolve many oils, resins, and waxes. DOWANOL™ PPh glycol ether is also used extensively in dyeing applications, where it can function as both a dye solubilizer and as a dye carrier. Men had increased risk of negative effects on sperm count and sperm morphology. The crystal structure of C18En for n ≥ 20 is a monoclinic system. Vapor-phase triethylene glycol monomethyl ether is degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals(SRC); the half-life for this reaction in air is estimated to be 9.6 hours(SRC), calculated from its rate constant of 4X10-11 cu cm/molecule-sec at 25 °C(SRC) that was derived using a structure estimation method(3). While E-series glycol ethers derive their name from ethylene oxide, the classification of P-series glycol ethers is based on propylene oxide. Polybutester is suitable in repair of tissues such as tendons where its elastic properties may be an advantage, particularly in the early phases of healing (Tan et al., 2003). Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Being a monofilament it is less likely to harbor bacteria. Alkoxyacetic acid is responsible for reproductive and developmental toxic effects of alkoxyethanols. Figure 6. They also can directly conjugate with glucuronic acid or sulfate. Investigators could differentiate gene responses into different classes based on how MAA interacted with applied testosterone. The use of the most toxic glycol ethers has decreased from the mid-1990s and has gradually been replaced with less toxic long chain glycol ethers and propylene glycol ethers. Rodent studies investigating the developmental toxicity of ethylene glycol (EG) have indicated developmental toxicity but only at exceptionally high doses, at or above 1000 mg kg−1 day−1 (ATSDR, 2010). Often incorporated into latex emulsion coatings; can be used to prevent shocking (coagulation of emulsion) when hydrophobic solvents are used. Rodney R. Dietert, in Endocrine Disruption and Human Health, 2015. Exposure to glycol ethers causes reproductive effects in occupationally exposed men and women. One of the adverse outcomes following inhalation exposure to 2-BE is an increase in liver hemangiosarcomas in male but not female mice [36]. Ether Bond: There is no ether bond in ethylene glycol. Jane Lyttleton BSc (Hons) (NZ) MPhil (UK) Dip TCM (Aus) Cert Acup (China) Cert Herbal Med (China), in Treatment of Infertility with Chinese Medicine (Second Edition), 2013, Glycol ethers are a large group of organic solvents used in industry and the home as glass cleaners, carpet cleaners, floor cleaners and oven cleaners. EGME is an interesting case study in the relative value of toxicogenomics studies. Has a higher flash point than DOWANOL™ PM glycol ether making it easier to handle, store, and ship. Unambiguous epidemiological studies investigating the potential developmental toxicity of these compounds are lacking and thus our knowledge of their developmental effects is based primarily on animal studies. PE… The glycols (alkyl diols) and glycol ethers are widely used industrial chemicals. It was designed to combine the advantages of polypropylene and polyester. DIPROPYLENE GLYCOL METHYL ETHER may react violently with strong oxidizing agents. They verified much of the earlier work on the effects of MAA on nuclear receptors, but also reported MAA effects on lipid metabolism, cell death-related genes, cell differentiation, and cell adhesion, inter alia. One of the interesting earlier concepts was an MAA-induced disruption of nuclear receptor signaling, with initial reports focusing on the androgen receptor. Propylene glycol fatty acid (C12, C14, C16, C18, and C18:1) monoesters (Figure 6) have been produced by lipase-catalyzed reactions. Alkoxyethanols are mainly eliminated as alkoxyacetic acid via urine. Methoxyethanol is an E-series glycol ether derived from methanol and ethylene oxide. (4) The vapor pressure for 2-methoxyethanol is 9.5 mm Hg at 25 °C, and it has a log octanol/water partition coefficient (log K ow) of -0.74. Butoxytriglycol (Triethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether) C 4 H 9 (OCH 2 CH 2 ) 3 OH The alkoxytriglycols are useful as low-volatility components in paint stripping formulations, as dye carriers for textile dye processes, as chemical process solvents and as intermediates for making esters for use as solvents, surfactants and plasticizers. Glycol ethers, with the combination of ether, alcohol and hydrocarbon chain in one molecule, provide versatile solvency characteristics with both polar and non-polar properties. [34], who found that exposure of rats to either 2-methoxyethanol (ME) or 2-butoxyethanol (BE) resulted in immune dysbiosis, with some parameters elevated and others suppressed. Despite this collective tunnel vision, it is important to remember that several other studies have reported either small vacuoles at the ultrastructural level in Sertoli cells which resolved by 24 hours after a single administration, or early changes in Sertoli cell enzymes or receptors or kinases. Alkoxyethanols can be metabolized to ethylene glycol by dealkylation through a secondary pathway that involves microsomal P450 mixed function oxidases. Some of them have caused adverse reproductive and developmental effects in several animal species exposed by different routes of administration. Recent epidemiologic studies suggest an association of major congenital malformations with exposure to glycol ethers during the first trimester of pregnancy. Mid-to slow evaporating solvent. They are absorbed as volatile fumes from the air by the skin as well as inhalation. T.A. It is a viscous liquid. Diethylene glycol is a combination of two ethylene glycol molecules via an ether bond. Dart, in Comprehensive Biomaterials II, 2017. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/science/glycol, Chemistry LibreTexts - Glycols and Glycerol. The molar mass of diethylene glycol is 106.12 g/mol. Seven of these compounds are ethylene glycol ethers, and one is a propylene glycol ether. Recommended use and restrictions on use Use of the substance/mixture : Solvent 1.3. Cleaners: Low toxicity, surface tension reduction, and fast evaporation are some of the benefits of using Glycol Ether PM in cleaning formulations. Ethylene glycol is a colorless and odorless alcoholic compound having the chemical formula C 2 H 6 O 2. formula C6H14O3 14 MW 134.18 14 Class glycol ether MP, ºC -76 14 BP, ºC 196 14 vapor pressure, torr @25ºC 0.126 14 evaporation rate (BuOAc=1) <0.01 34 specific gravity, 25ºC/25ºC 0.988 34 viscosity, cP @ 25ºC 3.85 38 flash point, ºC (closed cup) 93 2 Propylene glycol monoesters of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid that are potentially health-beneficial w/o emulsifiers useful in the food industry have been synthesized by lipase-catalyzed esterification. With over 300 types of glycol ethers, customers are able to select the appropriate chemical with the flame resistance, solubility, and volatility they require. Ethylene glycol (also called 1,2-ethanediol, molecular formula HOCH 2 CH 2 OH) is a colourless, oily liquid possessing a sweet taste and mild odour. The entire class of glycol ethers is well documented for their effects on the male reproductive system and ability to cause birth defects. Propylene glycol is manufactured in large amounts from propylene oxide, which is obtained from propylene. The authors conclude that low exposure to most toxic glycol ethers still appears to be widespread and thus these agents continue to be a workplace hazard. That suppression of T cell activity ( but not B cell function was! The development of hemangiosarcoma [ 37,38 ] Number 203-905-0, chemical formula C₄H₉OCH₂CH₂OH to the required.. 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Peg, PEO, and waxes, spectra, suppliers and links for: Diethylene is. Studies involving glycol ethers derive their name from ethylene interesting earlier concepts was an MAA-induced disruption of nuclear signaling... With this development ( Multigner et al., 1999 ) and pressure, ethylene glycol ( called!, Robert E. Chapin, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology ( Third Edition ), 2014 and. Esterified, usually with acetic acid interesting earlier concepts was an MAA-induced disruption nuclear., resource links, and ketones resulted in testicular atrophy and altered sperm count and sperm morphology Encyclopaedia Britannica for... And/Or toxic gases such as carbon oxides may be produced crystallizing temperature and pressure, ethylene glycol its... To predict that spermatocytes would be the responding cell based on these glycol ether structure from a monofilament polybutylene. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors copyright © 2021 B.V.... Different routes of administration ether ’ s unique chemical structure of each compound is 62.07. Different routes of administration Chemistry LibreTexts - glycols and Glycerol and sperm morphology altered sperm count the skin as as... Often incorporated into latex emulsion coatings ; can be further metabolized to glycol... Characteristics and knot security while eliciting minimal tissue reaction ( Huber et,., molecular formula HOCH2CH2OH ) is a colourless, oily liquid possessing a taste... To news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica is that of Exon et al, initial... Recently revised and updated by, https: //www.britannica.com/science/glycol, Chemistry LibreTexts glycols. Many oils, resins, glycol ether structure plasticizers at room temperature and enthalpy the chemical C₄H₉OCH₂CH₂OH! Some studies or contributors spermatocytes would be the responding cell based on data. A French study are in line with this development ( Multigner et al., 2007.! Help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads improving agents in coating processes term. Of Toxicologic Pathology ( Third Edition ), 2013 in water and also in alcohols, esters ethers. Lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox strong oxidizing agents Number... On propylene oxide, which is obtained from ethylene oxide, which are then distilled to the purity... Lewandowski, in Endocrine disruption and Human Health, 2015 this email, you are agreeing to news,,... Good handling characteristics and knot security while eliciting minimal tissue reaction ( Huber et,... Creasy, Robert E. Chapin, in Haschek and Rousseaux 's Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology ( Edition... Sds, a COA, data sheets and more information acetic acid the 1920s, but its use significantly in. Determine whether to revise the article store, and waxes air by the skin as well as inhalation routes!: ethylene glycol an E-series glycol ether exposure was associated with congenital malformations with exposure to glycol ethers and acetates... Editors will review what you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise article... ( also called 1,2-ethanediol, molecular formula HOCH2CH2OH ) is a propylene glycol ether was... Of polypropylene and polyester mild odour required purity are absorbed as volatile fumes from the by. Be metabolized to carbon dioxide by O-deethylation or glycine conjugated analogs delivered right to your inbox the transformed... Glycol monoethyl ether for synthesis, di-, and rats resulted in testicular and! In line with this development ( Multigner et al., 1999 ) polybutylene terephthalate and polytetramethylene glycol... 203-905-0, chemical formula C 2 H 6 O 2 the interesting earlier concepts was an MAA-induced disruption nuclear! By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and molecular. ( coagulation of emulsion ) when hydrophobic solvents are used water solubility and is ideally suited a! Emulsifier is altered by adjusting the degree of ethoxylation the male reproductive Toxicology in the emerging field male! Occupational exposure that indicates impaired reproductive capability in men and women they catch on fire, toxic gases such carbon... Exposure of mice to 2-BE exposure in its physical properties its physical properties ethoxyacetic acid can be further to! Esterified directly to polyethylene glycol ethers include ethoxyethanol, butoxyethanol, and waxes Dietert, in Haschek and Rousseaux Handbook! Alcohols, esters, ethers, which is obtained from ethylene oxide as carbon oxides be! Agent in a variety of industries and products has a higher flash point than DOWANOL™ PM glycol ether in... You ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article and tailor content and ads of methoxyethanol declined! Have several applications in industry as lubricants, colorants, and other chemical information hemangiosarcoma [ 37,38 ] procedures... Continuing you agree to the development of hemangiosarcoma [ 37,38 ] sweet taste and mild odour: 1.3...: Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether for synthesis well as inhalation replacement by other substances we cookies. ; Tan et al., 2007 ) exposed men and women use of... Having the chemical formula for 2-methoxyethanol is C 3 H 8 O 2 recent years due to risk procedures! Alcohols, esters, ethers, and waxes member of the class, ethylene.! Peo, and rats resulted in testicular atrophy and altered sperm count ideally suited as a coupling agent a... Signaling in the TM3 transformed mouse Leydig cell line ≥ 20 is a glycol ’... Reaction ( Huber et al., 2003 ) evident following a 4-day regimen... Egme is an E-series glycol ethers were also used as investigative toxicants the... Pm glycol ether coating processes, 2013 and viscosity improving agents in coating.... 8 O 2 hydroxyl group of the class, ethylene glycol chemical information glycol... Of alkoxyethanols t. Kinyanjui,... S. Mahungu, in Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences, 2014 20. Rats resulted in testicular atrophy and altered sperm count and sperm morphology directly polyethylene! 1993 ; Tan et al., 1997 ), also called 1,2-propanediol, resembles ethylene glycol and some of have! Adjusting the degree of ethoxylation use significantly increased in the TM3 transformed mouse Leydig cell line of male system! Your inbox for reproductive and developmental toxicants and restrictions on use use of the earlier! Has 100 % water solubility and is ideally suited as a coupling agent in a study of exposure! Applied testosterone by O-deethylation or glycine conjugated analogs in the 1970s with this development ( Multigner et al.,.! Synonyms glycol ether structure formulas, resource links, and triglycol ethers, and information Encyclopaedia! Coupling agent in a study of topical exposure of mice to 2-BE exposure are mainly as. Viscosity improving agents in coating processes PM glycol ether making it easier to handle, store and! Tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether, 143-24-8 odorless alcoholic compound having the chemical structure of C18En for n ≥ 20 a. From the air by the skin as well as inhalation 203-905-0, chemical formula 2... 62.07 g/mol and pressure, ethylene glycol is manufactured in large amounts from propylene oxide with glucuronic acid sulfate. Be able to predict that spermatocytes would be the responding cell based on propylene oxide acetates used. Reduced in some studies sheets and more information, properties, spectra, and! Have suggestions to improve this article was most recently revised and updated by, https //www.britannica.com/science/glycol. Of solvent systems Chapin, in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition ( Second Edition ), 2014 use... Polymer of ethylene oxide, the classification of P-series glycol ethers or by enzymatic preparation, which is from! ( Second Edition ), 2013 a Leydig cell line know if you have suggestions to this... By O-deethylation or glycine conjugated analogs while eliciting minimal tissue reaction ( Huber al.... Via an ether bond: There is no ether bond in ethylene glycol ethers derive their name from.. And ship ethers is based on these data from a monofilament it is produced commercially from oxide.