CPI: Cycle per Instruction. The instruction count in the performance equation is the “dynamic”instruction count. 0000005309 00000 n Basic Performance Equation. ��2���~�*�����;K)��ú���=���b��q�b���#a�ZZ5%د��5G7�����1�5���RzMO�d�����X���=�?U!�T@MYG4ӝ|� �v���#*��a�({�b=/�Y��XA���%\��ro��:L&ȴ��d�+�?H��K,�҇��5��׭������|�b̝�E���Fqr��=p>�)�d��jo��G����l��j����4�v��2��K������Ⱦ�?�����7LSݬZb��F��v��ޝ���X���h�`r�p|��˷��dW�#�b!�D{�e� ��D�+���ky����I{��k���3 W\'2q�O�|ƞ`W��x\2��Gw�K�"i�UϏ��m��+��8��q�&�o�u���9$-�M�QJ֢eFx�������� … Across the reactor itself equation for plug flow gives, -----(1) Where F’A0 would be the feed rate of A if the stream entering the reactor (fresh feed plus recycle) were unconverted. Ic: Number of Instructions in a given program. <> Write down the CPU performance equation and define each of the terms. "��֤��4i���+ꀹ��ZqK��ҩ=M��~�ͼ�\��*G�� �e맀 �w��o`�k�]��T�D�➳dۤ��`���%�@vl���� ������@6�R�``P�� �L@Aa�����1D�L C��`�8�\b��R��� *(���Jģ�E)4lR0���e�D��1��@'2)�F �J�`'�Ft40 <> The Classic CPU Performance Equation in terms of instruction count (the number of instructions executed by the program), CPI, and clock cycle time: CPU time=Instruction count * CPI * Clock cycle time or. Execution time: CPI * I * 1/CR CPI = Cycles Per Instruction I = Instructions. H��W�r�H}�WtռH)�f_I�*Y�k�T��-+��d����()�q�c�{� ݼH���gL��F�i���u�l�䟶���߮��i#��Y��T%������H���lʢ�H�o���4�΋+�����?�� ��*���x'>���Edt�(�R�m�N8����EIl]�8|��V��d�ʄ*�#���`[O!���=��*б*㕉9~������|>W�6���9?�DX�?l��%�`�Z�q͒8I�L�Kl��G��ˋk1����$����KzM81�%�t2{B�l_C;%�� 6. Time reference in a computer is provided by a clock. To calculate the parallelization efficiency, you need to use a mathematical equation called Amdahl's Law. 2 0 obj The discrete time events specified by the clock is known an clock cycles. stream CPU Time = I * CPI * T. I = number of instructions in program. 02-1. �Oh��փ�}Ӭ}ӌ��>���j�_�����&M��ʺA��v�г՟b�n\����jJ�Ԏ��Lh���HD"��}j���W��h���ű���+x�o��1�Z�x��4��c�E��i�wq�=�����5G�Ji)�M�)���Gf�t6����#�J���nM���9��(�Ҥ057�l�S͎lx;�����ȪA�F����6�G�uwt���J܇E%�x�dy����W��ܓ�"�I`T��V�.�����W g��yFͻ���ox;���:"�z)��՛T��uJ}����ؔ� <>>> In this dissertation we propose and investigate a new approach to CPU performance evaluation. 0000002218 00000 n Boussinesq’s 1872 paper introduces the equations now known as the 3-5 pipeline steps (ARM, SA, R3000) { Attempt to get C down to 1 { Problem: stalls due to control/data hazards Super-Pipelining { e.g. Since around 2005–2007, Dennard scaling has ended, so even though Moore's law continued for several years after that, it has not yielded dividends in improved performance. endobj b. Many processors expose performance-monitoring counters that help measure 'productive performance' associated with workloads. 20% of the dynamic instructions in an application are multiplies. <> endobj • The CPI can be divided into TWO component terms; x�b```f``Z������ Ā B�@���1&�( py��uN��8�q0�a�c0R����˰��R���1�A�A�AiSt���Nz:WX'1VH[#���`��Z�U���ˠh�t�q#�A��0��v The first step should be to find out the cycles per Instruction for P3. Background loop with an “observation” variable. 0000000016 00000 n CPU Time = I * CPI / R. R = 1/T the clock rate. extern INT8U ping; while(1) /* endless loop – spin in … T = Clock cycle time. 0000001291 00000 n The hydrologic uncertainty processor (HUP) has been widely employed in hydrological uncertainty prediction. <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 1024.08 768] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> f~�p��La���"e��q�� ���4��e���-)��y��8P��L�,ۿ�'�������B$���t-�N�P�ptx�X��ьG�xBU��\���lʳ��j�����&��Lԑ� decrease) CPU time: Many potential performance improvement techniques primarily improve one component with small or predictable impact on the other two. 0000005828 00000 n = InstCount * CPI * I * 1/CR CPI = cycles per Instruction for P3 component with small or impact. Provided by a clock, Turbo is disabled by default on P-state-based platforms many potential performance improvement techniques primarily one! For Intel Nehalem and AMD processors, Turbo is disabled by default on P-state-based.! 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